Chronic hyperthyroidism may increase the risk of fractures

Therefore, blinded research nurses assessed outcomes to minimise detection bias. Patients were instructed not to report on their type of management to these research nurses.OutcomesAll outcomes were assessed at the level of the individual participant and are reported in supplementary table A. The primary outcome was change in health related quality of life on the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ)18 at 12 months.

pandora jewelry Although regular monitoring of levothyroxine doses is indicated,7 8 evidence suggests that the dose often remains unchanged as people age,9 10 and over 20% of older adults are overtreated pandora charms,11 12 13 14 leading to iatrogenic hyperthyroidism.Chronic hyperthyroidism may increase the risk of fractures, particularly in older people and postmenopausal women who already have a higher risk of osteoporosis and fractures.13 15 16 17 Studies have found that higher compared with lower doses of levothyroxine replacement18 19 20 and subclinical hyperthyroidism21 are associated with a lower bone density and bone quality, as measured by ultrasonography.22 An excess of thyroid hormone can also affect neuromuscular function and muscle strength23 and increase the risk of arrhythmias24 25 and falls,15 which can raise the risk of fractures independent of bone density. Previous studies of the association between levothyroxine and fractures have had mixed results,15 26 27 28 29 30 largely because of small sample sizes and the inclusion of younger, lower risk populations. This problem has not been dealt with adequately in older women, and older people in general, who are at higher risk of fractures,15 26 31 more likely to be treated with levothyroxine,11 32 and more vulnerable to adverse events related to overtreatment.14 33 34 35 36 Similarly, the effect of levothyroxine dose on risk for fracture has not been explored. pandora jewelry

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